How To Set Up FTP for Windows

Reading Time: 5 minutes

What is FTP?

You or your developer may want to have access via FTP (File Transfer Protocol) to the folders for the project or domain that is being worked on. FTP is a quick and easy way for someone to connect to their project, without having to have full access to RDP into the server. An FTP user will only have access to the folders that are designated to them, limiting them in their own environment so as not to accidentally change other user’s files and file structure on their project/domain. In this tutorial, we will cover how to utilize FTP on a Core/Self-Managed Dedicated or VPS Server, as well as a Plesk Server.  Let’s jump right in!

 

Enabling FTP Services

The first thing that you need to check before creating an FTP user is to enable FTP on your server. To do that on a Core/Self-Managed server, we need to RDP to the server and open Server Manager.

rdp connection info

Once the server manager is open, in the top right corner, there are a few options: Manage, Tools, View, and Help. We want to click on Manage, which will show a drop-down menu. At the top of the menu, click on the option Add Roles and Features.

IIS server manager dashboard

Once you have the Add Roles and Features Wizard up, click Next until you are at the Server Selection.

add role feature wizard

Make sure your server is highlighted, by default, it should be. If so, you can click Next which brings you to Server Roles.

select destination server

Server Roles are where you will find the features your server can have enabled separately, depending on your needs. We aren’t looking for anything but FTP at this time, so we won’t cover all of the features and services we find here. FTP services are going to be found under the role Web Server. Click on the carrot next to Web Server. There are 3 different options with checkboxes; Web Server, FTP Server, and Management Tools. Dropping down the FTP Feature will show the available FTP features.

If all of these are already checked, you can skip ahead to the Adding and Assigning FTP Users section of this help article. However, if these are not checked, go ahead and check FTP Server and FTP Service. If your users plan on using ASP.NET services or IIS Manager, you will want to make sure you check FTP Extensibility.

Once you have the FTP features selected, click on Next a couple of times until you get to the Confirmation page. At the top, you will see an option to “restart the destination server automatically if needed. For installing FTP Services, a restart is not needed. We can leave this box unchecked and click on Install. This install process shouldn’t take too long.

Adding and Assigning FTP Users section

Adding an FTP User Account

Before we add an FTP site, we need to set up a user with some credentials. We do this by accessing Computer Management.

set up a user credentials

On Windows 2012 and up, we can do this by right-clicking the Start Menu button, and selecting Computer Management. Here, under System Tools, if we click the drop down carrot, we will see the Local Users and Groups section. Double-click on Users and a list of all the Local Users will formulate. On the far right of the Computer Management, once we have navigated to Users, we see a More Actions and will need to click on that to add a New User.

add a New User

Clicking on New User will pop up a simple interface that asks for the user name, the user’s full name, a description for that user that serves as a description for you, the administrator, to recognize the purpose of this user. Fill out this information accordingly and type in a password for this user. Under Confirm Password, we see that by default “User must change password at next logon” is selected. Because this is strictly for FTP, we will uncheck that and check “User cannot change password” and “Password never expires”. Considering the FTP user will only have access to the destination you allow, it is not necessary to change the password.

description for FTP user

 

Adding an FTP Site

Now that FTP Services are installed and a user is created, we need to head on over to the IIS Manager. This can be found in the Start Menu, or by clicking on Tools in Server Manager as we did before, but clicking on Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager.

Adding an FTP Site

Here is the IIS Manager, we need to create the FTP site that you will want this specific user to have access to. We do this by clicking on the drop-down carrot next to the server name, and then right-clicking on the folder that says “Sites“.

create FTP site access for user

A menu will pop up, with the option to Add FTP Site. Enter the name you wish to give this FTP site. Select a Physical path, where you want the user for this FTP site to have access. Do this by either typing in the direct path, or selecting the 3 dots next to the entry bar and physically selecting the folder you wish to assign this FTP site.

Select a Physical path to ftp site

Clicking next will bring you to Bindings and SSL settings. If you have any specific IP address that is assigned to a domain that is being used for this FTP Service, you need to make sure that the IP address is selected by dropping down the bar.

Bindings and SSL settings

If all sites are taking advantage of Windows SNI (Server Name Identification) than you can leave this set to All Unassigned, if you wish to use a different port than the default FTP port, go ahead and type that in under Port. But if this is just a basic FTP instance for everyday purposes, go ahead and leave that port at the default 21. Next, you want to make sure that “Start FTP Site automatically” is selected. Unless of course, you want to manually allow the user to connect to their FTP site only when you designate by starting the page in IIS. Select No SSL and click Next for this FTP Site. In this tutorial, we will not be covering setting up an SSL for this specific FTP Site. If you do already have an SSL that you have added to the server for this purpose, you need to make sure that Allow or Require under SSL is checked, and select your SSL on the drop down bar labeled SSL Certificate.

authentication authorization info

Now we have been brought to the Authentication and Authorization section. Here at the top are two options for Authentication. Make sure that both boxes are checked. Finally, we have the Authorization section where we would select the groups or users we want to allow to be able to log into this FTP Site.

 

Setting Up the Windows Firewall

Now that we have the FTP site all set up and ready to go, we do need to set up the firewall rules. Open up your firewall by clicking on Start, scrolling to Windows Administrative Tools, and clicking on Windows Firewall with Advanced Security.

Windows Firewall with Advanced Security link

firewall.advanced.security

We need to set some rules on the Inbound Rules section, so click on that first. It’s in the top right corner. After clicking on Inbound Rules in the top right corner under Actions, you will see a section called Inbound Rules. Under that category should be New Rule.

set Inbound Firewall Rules

You may have to click on the arrow next to Inbound Rules to see this. Click on the New Rule

setup new firewall rule

And you will be selecting the Rule Type. For FTP we will be using Port, so click on that and Next. Now you will see Protocol and Ports. For Protocol, use the setting TCP. For Specific local ports type 21, 5001-5051 and click on Next.selecting Firewall Rule Type

Now we have the Action section. By default, “Allow the connection” is selected. Keep this the way it is and press Next. Now you will be prompted for when this rule will apply.

Firewall Allow the connection

We want it always to apply so keep each network connection type box checked. There are three: Domain, Private, and Public. Click Next, and you will be naming the firewall rule. We suggest just naming it FTP Connection or something of the sort.

naming the firewall rule

You should be all set. Go ahead and log into another computer, use your favorite FTP client (such as Filezilla), enter the IP address as a host, and your newly created username and password, port number, and click connect. You are now connected FTP to your designated pathway on your server.

 

FTP on a Plesk Server

This process is a lot faster and much simpler. Here are a couple links in regards to setting it up on a Plesk Windows Server.

https://help.liquidweb.com/s/article/Creating-FTP-Users

https://help.liquidweb.com/s/article/Uploading-Files-Using-FTP-in-Plesk

You did it! You have successfully set up an FTP site so that you or the developers can now edit, copy, and remove files from their designated folders smoothly.

Troubleshooting Microsoft SQL Server Error 18456, Login failed for user

Reading Time: 4 minutes

Login errors with Microsoft SQL Server (MSSQL) are a fairly common issue and can be easily solved with some basic troubleshooting steps. Before we dig in, let’s take a look at the details of the error to try and determine the cause.

connect to server error

Solutions to Microsoft SQL Server Error 18456

Sometimes, the error presents as “login failed for user ‘<username>’,” this information will help us as we identify the user we need to troubleshoot. From the message, we’ll know the error number as a reference to search for next steps. In this case, it is Microsoft SQL Server, Error: 18456.

Other times, we may only see “Microsoft SQL Server Error 18456” along with the severity and state number. On its own, a state number might not mean much, yet it can offer more details as to what is wrong and where to look next.

These states of the error, 18456, are the most common. The descriptions and potential solutions offer a quick explanation and potential troubleshooting guide.

mssql errors and potential solutions

Step 1:  Log In with Remote Desktop

The troubleshooting and solutions require you to login to the server or at least be able to make a Windows Authentication connection to MSSQL using Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio. The most common and easiest method is to connect directly to the server with a Remote Desktop Connection. If you need more information about Remote Desktop Connection, these Knowledge Base articles will help you get connected:

Step 2: Run Microsoft SQL Server Management

Once you are logged into the server, you’ll want to run Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS). SSMS is the tool best suited to configure, manage, and administer MSSQL.

mssql server management

When you start SSMS, you will be asked to log in to the server. By default, most MSSQL servers have Windows Authentication enabled, meaning you must log in with the Windows Administrator or the account specified as the SQL Administrator when MSSQL was installed and configured.

connect to mssql server

In addition to Windows Authentication, MSSQL supports SQL Server Authentication. Depending on the version of MSSQL and how it was installed and configured, you may or may not have SQL Server Authentication enabled by default.

Step 3: Checking the Server Authentication Mode

Once we login to SSMS using Windows Authentication, we need to check the security settings to confirm whether MSSQL is set up to allow both Windows and SQL Authentication.

In SSMS, right-click the Server Name at the top of the Object Explorer window and choose Properties.

Next, click the Security page.

mssql security properties

If you find Windows Authentication is the only mode configured, this is the likely cause of Error 18456, Login failed for user ‘<username>’.

Setting the Server authentication mode to allow SQL Server and Windows Authentication, you will be able to login to MS-SQL with a SQL user and password or a Windows user and password. After making this change, you will need to restart the SQL Server service.

 

Step 4: Restart the SQL Service

In SSMS, right-click the Server Name at the top of the Object Explorer window and choose Restart to apply the new authentication mode settings.  

In the above example, Windows Authentication mode was the only mode configured, and the Error 18456 occurred because the user ‘sa’ is a SQL user and SQL Server Authentication was not permitted.

 

Step 5: Checking SQL User Permissions

As we check the SQL user permissions, we need to answer the following questions:

  • Is the user allowed to log in?
  • Does the user have a valid password set up?
  • Does the user have the needed permissions for access to the desired database?

In SSMS Object Explorer, expand Security, Logins. Locate the user that was failing to log in. A red x on the user indicates this user has login disabled.

smss login properties

To allow the user to login, right-click the user and choose Properties, then click the Status page. Enabling login for the user and click OK.

enable login user properties

After refreshing the list user logins, we can confirm the user no longer has a red x present. This should allow the user to log in. In this example, the SQL user ‘sa’ failed to log in because there was no permission to log in. 

Continuing with user troubleshooting, right-click the user and choose Properties, then click the General page. Here you can enter a new password and then enter the confirmation password. Click OK to save the new password. We set a new password for the user so that we are certain of the password when we attempt to log in.

sa login user properties

Step 6: Mapping the User to the Database

Our last step in troubleshooting a user is to check user mapping to verify the user has access to the desired database and to set or verify their role for the database. Right-click the user and choose Properties, then click the User Mapping page. Select the Database from the list of databases. From the database role memberships, select the desired/required memberships. Click OK.

map user to mssql database

In this example, we mapped the user ‘ProdX709’ to the database Production X709.2019 and granted them database role db_owner. In many cases, you only need a user to have db_datareader and db_datawriter roles to be able to read and write to the database.

 

In this troubleshooting article, we learned how to identify specifics of Error 18456 to help us track down the root cause of the issue. Still looking for support?  Our MSSQL database solutions come with assistance from our technical support team. Find out how our high-availability database can work for you!

How to Remove (Delete) a User on Ubuntu 16.04

Reading Time: 1 minute

User management includes removing users who no longer need access, removing their username and any associate root privileges are necessary for securing your server. Deleting a user’s access to your Linux server is a typical operation which can easily be performed using a few commands.   Continue reading “How to Remove (Delete) a User on Ubuntu 16.04”

How to Add a User and Grant Root Privileges on Ubuntu 16.04

Reading Time: 2 minutes

Ubuntu 16.04 LTS provides you the ability to add a user for anyone who plans on accessing your server.  Creating a user is a basic setup but an important and critical one for your server security. In this tutorial, we will create a user and grant administrative access, known as root, to your trusted user. Continue reading “How to Add a User and Grant Root Privileges on Ubuntu 16.04”

How To Assign a User to a MySQL Database in cPanel

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This tutorial assumes you’ve already logged in to cPanel, and are starting on the home screen. Let’s learn how to assign a user to a database.

  1. Click the “MySQL Databases” icon.cpanel-pl-mysql-5-assignuser-02
  2. Under “Add User To Database”, select the user you want to add, and then select the database you want to add it to.cpanel-pl-mysql-5-assignuser-03
  3. When ready, click “Add”.cpanel-pl-mysql-5-assignuser-04
  4. Select the privileges you want to grant the user… in this case, let’s select “All Privileges”.cpanel-pl-mysql-5-assignuser-05
  5. Then click “Make Changes”.cpanel-pl-mysql-5-assignuser-06
  6. That’s it! The user has been assigned to the database.cpanel-pl-mysql-5-assignuser-07
  7. You can see the user assigned to the database in the table of databases.cpanel-pl-mysql-5-assignuser-08

 

How to Remove (Delete) a User on Ubuntu 15.04

Reading Time: 1 minute
Users via Command Line 101: Basic User Interaction
I. How to Add a User and Grant Root Privileges on Ubuntu 15.04
II. How to Remove (Delete) a User on Ubuntu 15.04

Pre-Flight Check

  • These instructions are intended specifically for removing a user on Ubuntu 15.04.
  • I’ll be working from a Liquid Web Self Managed Ubuntu 15.04 server, and I’ll be logged in as root.

Continue reading “How to Remove (Delete) a User on Ubuntu 15.04”

How to Add a User and Grant Root Privileges on Ubuntu 15.04

Reading Time: 1 minute

Pre-Flight Check

  • These instructions are intended specifically for adding a user on Ubuntu 15.04.
  • I’ll be working from a Liquid Web Self Managed Ubuntu 15.04 server, and I’ll be logged in as root.

Continue reading “How to Add a User and Grant Root Privileges on Ubuntu 15.04”

How to Add a User and Grant Root Privileges on Fedora 22

Reading Time: 1 minute
Note:
Please note that this article is considered legacy documentation because this OS has reached its end-of-life support.

Pre-Flight Check

  • These instructions are intended specifically for adding a user on Fedora 22.
  • I’ll be working from a Liquid Web Self Managed Fedora 22 server, and I’ll be logged in as root.

Continue reading “How to Add a User and Grant Root Privileges on Fedora 22”

How to Remove (Delete) a User on Ubuntu 14.04 LTS

Reading Time: 1 minute
Users via Command Line 101: Basic User Interaction
I. How to Add a User and Grant Root Privileges on Ubuntu 14.04 LTS
II. How to Remove (Delete) a User on Ubuntu 14.04 LTS

Pre-Flight Check

  • These instructions are intended specifically for removing a user on Ubuntu 14.04 LTS.
  • I’ll be working from a Liquid Web Core Managed Ubuntu 14.04 LTS server, and I’ll be logged in as root.

Continue reading “How to Remove (Delete) a User on Ubuntu 14.04 LTS”