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What is Umask in Linux?

Umask (short for user file-creation mode mask) is used by UNIX-based systems to set default permissions for newly created files and directories. It does this by masking or subtracting these permissions. For example, with the usual Umask being set to 022 on most systems all the new files we create will subtract the Umask value from full permissions (for files that would be 666 - 022 = 644). Umask can be expressed in octal or symbolic values. 

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As you are probably already aware, everything is considered to be a file in Linux. That includes hardware devices, processes, directories, regular files, sockets, links, and so on. Generally, the file system is divided into data blocks and inodes. With that being said, you can think about inodes as a basis of the Linux file system. To explain it more clearly, an Inode is a data structure that stores metadata about every single file on your computer system. 

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What Is Sudo?

sudo-sudoers

credit to: XKCD

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What Are Linux File Permissions?

Setuid, Setgid and Sticky Bits are special types of Unix/Linux file permission sets that permit certain users to run specific programs with elevated privileges. Ultimately the permissions that are set on a file determine what users can read, write or execute the file. Linux provides more advanced file permissions that allow you to do more specific things with a file, or directory.  Typically, these file permissions are used to allow a user to do certain tasks with elevated privileges (allow them to do things they normally are not permitted to do). This is accomplished with three distinct permission settings.  They are setuid, setgid, and the sticky bit.

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