In this article, we will be discussing how to install Multiple PHP Versions on Ubuntu 16.04. Ubuntu 16.04 LTS servers assign the PHP 7.0 version by default. Although PHP 5.6 is currently EOL (end of life) as of December of 2018, some applications may not be compatible with PHP 7.0. For this tutorial, we instruct on how to switch between PHP 7.0 and PHP 5.6 for Apache and the overall default PHP version for Ubuntu.
Adding a user in CentOS is a common task for most Linux admins. User’s have unique username’s and occassionally you may wonder if a username is in use or need other details about the user (like their group ID). We’ll show you how to see a list of users by logging into your Liquid Web CentOS 7 server. Once you’ve logged in via SSH, you’ll be able to run the commands below and get the information you need. Let’s get started!
To get a simple list of user names, enter the command below and press Enter.
getent passwd | cut -d: -f1
This command gives us a list of users assigned to this CentOS server. If you’d like a more detailed list of user you can use the command below. Using the command will provide you with the username, UID, GID, User Details, their home directory path, and the Default Shell for the user.
In our example you’ll see each field is separated by colons. Let’s breakdown the sections to provide more information on the user.
- Username-the user example is root. Other users include bin, daemon, systemd-network, among many others. These are for when these entities need to access the system.
- Password-indicated by the letter x, you can also find this encrypted password in the /etc/shadow file.
- UID-this is the user’s ID, indicated by number starting at 1000. The root user is special as its UID is 0.
- GID-like the user ID, the group ID shows us the the group that a user belongs to. The GID also starts at 1000 and for root user the group number is 0.
- User Details – usually you’ll find the user’s first name. Sometimes this field can also be left blank.
- Home Directory- this is the path that a user is in when logging into the server. You can alter this path by chrooting a user’s path.
- Default Shell- A shell allows for an environment where users interact with the server and the type of shell assigned allows for different usage. The /bin/bash shell allows for text files to run commands.
Mac users work in their native Unix environment are familiar with using the terminal to SSH into their Linux based servers. When using a Mac to log into a Windows environment, or vice versa, the task is performed differently. Window machines use a different protocol, one aptly named RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol). For our tutorial, we’ll explore how to use your Mac to connect to a Windows server. Let’s get started!
You may find the “can’t resolve hostname” or “temporary failure in name resolution” error when using retrieval command like wget, cURL, ping or nslookup. There are many reasons why these commands can cause an error, including file corruption. For the sake of brevity, we look towards commonalities between these commands to solve the issue.
These commands connect to the Internet using gateways to communicate and provide information. If the connection from your local machine, in this case, a CentOS server, is disconnected you’ll likely run into issues trying to access the world wide web. In this troubleshooting tutorial, we’ll show you some common solutions to connectivity issues.
Step 1: Amongst many other configuration tasks, the resolv.conf file is used to resolve DNS requests. Manually editing the resolv.conf file to configure name resolution will only do so temporarily. The Network Manager controls this essential /etc/resolv.conf file to create permanent changes. So, we’ll first stop and disable the Network Manager:
chkconfig NetworkManager off; service NetworkManager stop
Step 2: The method for permanent changes is to edit the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 file instead of resolv.conf file. Open the file:
Next, we’ll set our DNS IP’s to use Google’s Public DNS (188.8.131.52 & 184.108.40.206).
Save and quit the file using ESC and :wq.
Step 3: Enable and restart your network, using the commands associated with your server version.
CentOS 6, CloudLinux 6, RHEL 6:
chkconfig network on
service network start
CentOS 7, CloudLinux 7, RHEL 7:
systemctl enable network.service
systemctl start network.service
Step 4: Test the reachability of a host by using ping, curl, wget or any testing tool of your choice. In our example, we’ve successfully ping’d Google!
PING google.com (220.127.116.11) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from lga15s46-in-f14.1e100.net (18.104.22.168): icmp_seq=1 ttl=57 time=6.65 ms
64 bytes from lga15s46-in-f14.1e100.net (22.214.171.124): icmp_seq=2 ttl=57 time=6.68 ms
64 bytes from lga15s46-in-f14.1e100.net (126.96.36.199): icmp_seq=3 ttl=57 time=6.68 ms
You don’t have to rack your brain over connectivity issues! Liquid Web customers enjoy 24/7 support for our Managed products. Our knowledgable team of support techs have experience with solving errors of this nature. Access our support team through a ticket, chat or phone call!
Similar to Dropbox and Google Drive, Nextcloud is self-hosting software that allows you to share files, contacts, and calendars. But, unlike Dropbox and Google Drive, your files will be private and stored on your server instead of a third party server. Nextcloud is HIPAA and GDPR compliant, so your files will be encrypted along with the ability to audit. For this tutorial, we’ll be installing our Nextcloud instance on our Ubuntu 18.04 LTS server. Continue reading “How to Install Nextcloud 15 on Ubuntu 18.04”
When using phpMyAdmin, it’s essential to have the correct user permissions to create edits/writes to the database. Otherwise insufficent permissions can lead to errors like the ones pictured below “#1044 – Access denied for user …[using password: YES]” and “#1045 – Access denied for user…[using password: YES]”. In our tutorial, we’ll show you how to correct this issue using the command line terminal. Let’s get started! Continue reading “Troubleshooting: MySQL/MariaDB Error #1044 & #1045 Access Denied for User”
Working with a database can be intimidating at times, but phpMyAdmin can simplify tasks by providing a control panel to view or edit your MySQL or MariaDB database. In this quick tutorial, we’ll show you how to install phpMyAdmin on an Ubuntu 18.04 server. Continue reading “How to Install phpMyAdmin on Ubuntu 18.04”
Sites with SSL are needed more and more every day. It’s ubiquitious enforcement challenges website encryption and is even an effort that Google has taken up. Certbot and Let’s Encrypt are popular solutions for big and small businesses alike because of the ease of implementation. Certbot is a software client that can be downloaded on a server, like our Ubuntu 18.04, to install and auto-renew SSLs. It obtains these SSLs by working with the well known SSL provider called Let’s Encrypt. In this tutorial, we’ll be showing you a swift way of getting HTTPS enabled on your site. Let’s get started! Continue reading “How to Setup Let’s Encrypt on Ubuntu 18.04”
If you are hosting more than one site on a server, then you most likely use Apache’s virtual host files to state which domain should be served out. Name based virtual hosts are one of the methods used to resolve site requests. This means that when someone views your site the request will travel to the server, which in turn, will determine which site’s files to serve out based on the domain name. Using this method you’ll be able to host multiple sites on one server with the same IP. In this tutorial, we’ll show you how to set up your virtual host file for each of your domains on an Ubuntu 18.04 server. Continue reading “How to Configure Multiple Sites with Apache”