How To List Users in CentOS 7

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Adding a user in CentOS is a common task for most Linux admins. User’s have unique username’s and occassionally you may wonder if a username is in use or need other details about the user (like their group ID). We’ll show you how to see a list of users by logging into your Liquid Web CentOS 7 server. Once you’ve logged in via SSH, you’ll be able to run the commands below and get the information you need. Let’s get started!

To get a simple list of user names, enter the command below and press Enter.

getent passwd | cut -d: -f1

This command gives us a list of users assigned to this CentOS server. If you’d like a more detailed list of user you can use the command below. Using the command will provide you with the username, UID, GID, User Details, their home directory path, and the Default Shell for the user.

getent passwd

Example Output:

In our example you’ll see each field is separated by colons. Let’s breakdown the sections to provide more information on the user.

  • Username-the user example is root. Other users include bin, daemon, systemd-network, among many others. These are for when these entities need to access the system.
  • Password-indicated by the letter x, you can also find this encrypted password in the /etc/shadow file.
  • UID-this is the user’s ID, indicated by number starting at 1000. The root user is special as its UID is 0.
  • GID-like the user ID, the group ID shows us the the group that a user belongs to. The GID also starts at 1000 and for root user the group number is 0.
  • User Details – usually you’ll find the user’s first name. Sometimes this field can also be left blank.
  • Home Directory- this is the path that a user is in when logging into the server. You can alter this path by chrooting a user’s path.
  • Default Shell- A shell allows for an environment where users interact with the server and the type of shell assigned allows for different usage. The /bin/bash shell allows for text files to run commands.

How to Replace MySQL with Percona on Plesk CentOS 7

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This article outlines the procedure for replacing the native MySQL®️ or MariaDB®️ service that is preinstalled on any typical Plesk Onyx 11 CentOS 7 server. The procedure outlines removal of the existing MySQL related binaries and replaces them with an adequate version of the Percona binaries. Once these Percona binaries are in place, a typical multistage MySQL Incremental version upgrade is processed to bring the existing databases and Percona binaries to the desired Percona 5.7 version. Continue reading “How to Replace MySQL with Percona on Plesk CentOS 7”

Install Java 8 on CentOS 7

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In this tutorial, we’ll be showing you how to install Oracle’s Java 8 programming language specifically onto a CentOS 7 server. This simple object-oriented language is used for many of the applications and websites you come across today.  Let’s jump right in! Continue reading “Install Java 8 on CentOS 7”

Transfer an SSL to Ubuntu 16.04 or CentOS 7

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SSL certificates have become a de facto part of every website. If you don’t yet have an SSL on your site to encrypt data, you should. Rather than showing an extra layer of security on sites protected by SSL, modern browsers instead now display a warning when a website does not have an SSL, essentially requiring sites to maintain their positive image.

When moving from one server to another, what needs to happen to your SSL to maintain your secure status? We’ll cover the basics for transferring traditional and Let’s Encrypt SSLs to Ubuntu 16.04 and CentOS 7.

Note:
This article will address SSLs in Apache specifically, but the same concepts apply to any service that supports SSL encryption.

Can SSLs be transferred between servers?

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How to Use Ansible

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Ansible symbolAnsible is an easy to use automation software that can update a server, configure tasks, manage daily server functions and deploys jobs as needed on a schedule of your choosing. It is usually administered from a single location or control server and uses SSH to connect to the remote servers. Because it employs SSH to connect, it is very secure and, there is no software to install on the servers being managed. It can be run from your desktop, laptop or other platforms to assist with automating the tedious tasks which every server owner faces.

Continue reading “How to Use Ansible”

Apache Performance Tuning: Configuring MPM Directives

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Our previous article in this series focused on defining and fitting MPM to match your environment.  Building off of our last tutorial we will be discussing specific details on how to adjust the previously mentioned Apache configuration directives on the various types of Liquid Web servers.  

Continue reading “Apache Performance Tuning: Configuring MPM Directives”

What is mod_deflate?

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How mod_deflate works

When a visitor accesses a website, a request is made to the web server for a specific kind of data. An example might be a home page of a site. Next, the web server locates that data and delivers it to the client who is requesting that data – basically back to the web browser.

In this example, the speed at which the home page loads can depend on a variety of factors. One of them could be how long it takes to find and deliver the data for that page. This is just one example.

Some of that data – such as javascript files, css files, and php files – can actually be compressed into smaller sizes before they are delivered back to the visiting client or browser at the smaller size. The visitor can now have a more optimized browsing experience.

This is where mod_deflate comes in.

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Generating a Certificate Signing Request (CSR) in CentOS

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This guide will walk you through the steps to create a Certificate Signing Request, (CSR for short.) SSL certificates are the industry-standard means of securing web traffic to and from your server, and the first step to getting your own SSL is to generate a CSR. This guide is written specifically for CentOS 7.

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How to Install and Configure vsftpd on CentOS 7

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FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is one of the most popular methods to upload files to a server. There exist a wide array of FTP servers, such as vsftpd, you can use and FTP clients exist for every platform.

Essentially no matter what OS you use you can find an easy to use FTP client, so it makes for a great solution to transfer files. On CentOS based servers before you can connect via FTP you’ll have to setup an FTP server. Here we’re gonna setup vsftpd which is a great option since it has a focus on security and speed.

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