How To List Users in CentOS 7

Reading Time: 2 minutes

Adding a user in CentOS is a common task for most Linux admins. User’s have unique username’s and occassionally you may wonder if a username is in use or need other details about the user (like their group ID). We’ll show you how to see a list of users by logging into your Liquid Web CentOS 7 server. Once you’ve logged in via SSH, you’ll be able to run the commands below and get the information you need. Let’s get started!

To get a simple list of user names, enter the command below and press Enter.

getent passwd | cut -d: -f1

This command gives us a list of users assigned to this CentOS server. If you’d like a more detailed list of user you can use the command below. Using the command will provide you with the username, UID, GID, User Details, their home directory path, and the Default Shell for the user.

getent passwd

Example Output:

In our example you’ll see each field is separated by colons. Let’s breakdown the sections to provide more information on the user.

  • Username-the user example is root. Other users include bin, daemon, systemd-network, among many others. These are for when these entities need to access the system.
  • Password-indicated by the letter x, you can also find this encrypted password in the /etc/shadow file.
  • UID-this is the user’s ID, indicated by number starting at 1000. The root user is special as its UID is 0.
  • GID-like the user ID, the group ID shows us the the group that a user belongs to. The GID also starts at 1000 and for root user the group number is 0.
  • User Details – usually you’ll find the user’s first name. Sometimes this field can also be left blank.
  • Home Directory- this is the path that a user is in when logging into the server. You can alter this path by chrooting a user’s path.
  • Default Shell- A shell allows for an environment where users interact with the server and the type of shell assigned allows for different usage. The /bin/bash shell allows for text files to run commands.

Best Practices for Security on Your New Ubuntu Server: Users, Console and Firewall

Reading Time: 4 minutes

Thank you for taking the time to review this important information. You will find this guide broken down into six major sections that coincide with Ubuntu’s security policy guide. The major topics we talk on throughout these articles are as follows:

Continue reading “Best Practices for Security on Your New Ubuntu Server: Users, Console and Firewall”

Kubernetes RBAC Authorization

Reading Time: 4 minutes

What is RBAC?

Kubernetes Role-Based Access Control or the (RBAC) system describes how we define different permission levels of unique, validated users or groups in a cluster. It uses granular permission sets defined within a .yaml file to allow access to specific resources and operations.

Starting with Kubernetes 1.6, RBAC is enabled by default and users start with no permissions, and as such, permissions must be explicitly granted by an admin to a specific service or resource. These policies are crucial for effectively securing your cluster. They permit us to specify what types of actions are allowed, depending on the user’s role and their function within the organization.

Continue reading “Kubernetes RBAC Authorization”

How To Remove a User from a MySQL Database in cPanel

Reading Time: 1 minute

This tutorial assumes you’ve already logged in to cPanel, and are starting on the home screen.  Let’s learn how to remove a user from a database.

  1. Click the “MySQL Databases” icon.cpanel-pl-mysql-7-removeuser-02
  2. In the table of databases, locate the database you wish to remove a user from, locate the specific user assigned to that database that you want to remove and click the delete icon.cpanel-pl-mysql-7-removeuser-04
  3. Click “Revoke User Privileges from Database” to confirm.cpanel-pl-mysql-7-removeuser-05
  4. That’s it! The user has been removed from the database.cpanel-pl-mysql-7-removeuser-06
  5. The user hasn’t been deleted … you can see it’s still listed in the list of current users. It has simply been removed from that database.cpanel-pl-mysql-7-removeuser-07