Kubectl is a command-line tool for Kubernetes. It allows us to execute Kubernetes operations via the API. We can use Kubectl to deploy apps, check logs as well as manage all the other resources of the cluster.
Kubernetes uses an HTTP-based REST API which is the actual Kubernetes user interface employed to manage it. This means that every Kubernetes operation is represented as an API endpoint and can be carried out based on an HTTP-request sent to the endpoint.
In this article, we will review Kubectl, and outline its installation, configuration, and use.
A virtual machine is a simulated computer system which runs on a physical computer. In other words, a virtual machine is a computer inside a computer. Virtual machines allocate memory, a virtual CPU, disk storage space, and a network interface. This means that we can have a Windows computer that runs multiple virtual machines composed of Ubuntu Linux, macOS, Windows 10, Solaris, and CentOS, and they will all be completely separate from our parent Windows operating system.
The arrival of containerized software has drastically changed the landscape of web hosting, and web application provides. The simplification and speed that comes with containers make deploying services like websites so efficient that the traditional model of dedicated servers running specific web-based software is almost obsolete. This being said, there will always be a place for virtual server projects and dedicated servers handling specific tasks like HIPAA compliant hosting services.
Docker is a containerization software that is used for automating the deployment and management of applications within an isolated environment. This software allows us to “pack” and ship an application, along with all of its needed files, libraries, and dependencies, into a “docker container“. That container can then be easily ported to any Linux system that contain cgroups support within the kernel, and provides a container management environment. Docker is one of several containerization implementations (not to be confused with virtualization) based on this cgroups mechanisms built into the Linux kernel.
Minikube is the name of a software program written in Go, which can build a local Kubernetes cluster on a single host. It uses a meager amount of resources to run a mini Kubernetes deployment. Minikube is mainly used for testing purposes using different scenarios or versions of Kubernetes
Before we begin, let’s describe what Docker is. Docker is a set of virtualization tools that allows us to create, test, and deploy containerized applications quickly and easily on a dedicated server. It has become very popular and used almost everywhere in our daily lives. Thanks to containerization, we can quickly launch applications on different private cloud host platforms utilizing small bundles which contain all the needed packages, libraries and configuration file to run an application. These docker packages communicate via established network channels.
VENOM, or Virtualized Environment Neglected Operations Manipulation, was made public on May 13, 2015. The vulnerability is in QEMU, a generic and open source machine emulator and virtualizer that is utilized by Xen, KVM, and other modern hypervisors / virtualization platforms.
Specifically a flaw with how QEMU handles out-of-bounds memory access, exploitation can cause the entire hypervisor to crash and may allow an attacker to access other virtual machines outside of their own.
Made public on May 13, 2015
This flaw exploits QEMU, a generic and open source machine emulator.
Allows for an attacker to access other virtual machines outside of their own.