Useful Command Line for Linux Admins

The command line terminal, or shell on your Linux server, is a potent tool for deciphering activity on the server, performing operations, or making system changes. But with several thousand executable binaries installed by default, what tools are useful, and how should you use them safely?

We recommend coming to terms with the terminal over SSH. Learn how to connect to your server over SSH, and get started with a few basic shell commands. This article will expand on those basic commands and show you even more useful and practical tools.

Warning:
Warning: These commands can cause a great deal of harm to your server if misused. Computers do precisely what you tell them to do. If you command your server to delete all files, it will remove every single file without question, and feasibly crash because it deleted itself. Please take precautions when working on your server, and ensure you have good local and remote backups available.

In the basic shell commands tutorial, you learned about basic navigation and file manipulation commands like ls, rm, mv, and cd. Below are a few essential commands for learning about your Linux system. (Display a user manual for each command by using man before each command, like so: man ps)

pipe

The pipe command (which is the | between two or more commands) is possibly the most useful tool in the shell language. This command allows the output of one command to be fed into the input of another command directly, without temporary files. The pipe command useful if you are dealing with a huge command output that you would like to format further, or to be processed by some other program without using a temporary file.

The basic tutorial showed the commands w and grep. Let’s connect them using pipe to format the output. Using the w command allows us to view users logged into the server while passing the output for the grep command to filter by the ‘root’ user type:

# w
08:56:43 up 27 days, 22:17, 2 users, load average: 0.00, 0.00, 0.00
USER TTY FROM LOGIN@ IDLE JCPU PCPU WHAT
root pts/0 10.1.1.206 08:52 0.00s 0.06s 0.00s w
jeff pts/1 191.168.1.6 09:02 1:59 0.07s 0.06s -bash

# w | grep root
root pts/0 10.1.1.206 08:52 0.00s 0.06s 0.00s w

The format of the last command is much more digestible and becomes much more important with the output from commands like ps.

ps

The ps command shows a ‘process snapshot’ of all currently running programs on the server. It is particularly useful in conjunction with the grep command to pare down its verbose results down to a certain keyword. For instance, let’s see if the Apache process ‘httpd,’ is running:

# ps faux | grep httpd
root 27242 0.0 0.0 286888 700 ? Ss Aug29 1:40 /usr/sbin/httpd -k start
nobody 77761 0.0 0.0 286888 528 ? S Sep17 0:03 \_ /usr/sbin/httpd -k start
nobody 77783 0.0 1.6 1403008 14416 ? Sl Sep17 0:03 \_ /usr/sbin/httpd -k start
...

We can see that there are several ‘httpd’ processes running here. The one owned by ‘root’ is the core one (the ‘forest’ nodes, \_, help identify child processes, too). If we did not see any httpd processes, it could safely assume, Apache is not running, and we should restart it to serve websites request again.

The common flags used for ps are ‘faux’, which displays processes for all users in a user-oriented format, run from any source (terminal or not, which is signified by the x), paired with a process tree (forest). The ‘aux’ command ensures the view of every single process on the server, while the ‘f’ in aux helps to determine which processes are parents and which are children.

top

Like the ps command, the top command helps to determine which processes are running on a server, but top has an advantage in its ability to display in real-time while filtering by several different factors. Simply, it dynamically shows the ‘top’ resource utilizers and is executed by running:

# top

Once inside of top, you will see a lot of process threads moving around. The ones at the top, by default, will show you processes that are using the most CPU at the moment. Holding shift to type ‘M’ will change the sort to processes that are using the most MEMory. Hold shift and press ‘P’ to change the sort back to CPU. When you want to quit, you can simply press ‘q’.

Since top writes information live, its output cannot be parsed by grep and thus seldom used in conjunction with a pipe. Top is most useful for discovering what is causing a server to run out of memory, or what is causing a load. For instance, on a server with high load, if the first command is using 100% CPU and its name is php-fpm, then we can assume that an inefficient PHP script is causing the load. In this case, php-fpm should be restarted (this is achieved on cPanel with /scripts/restartsrv_apache_php_fpm).

netstat

netstat is another tool to show what service is running on a server, but in particular, it shows processes that are listening for traffic on any particular network port. It can also display other interface statistics. Here is how you would display all publicly listening processes:

# netstat -tunlp

The command flags ‘-tunlp’ will show program names listening for UDP or TCP traffic, with numeric addresses. This can be further scoped down by grep to see, for instance, what program is listening on port 80:

# netstat -tunlp | grep :80
tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:80 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN 27242/httpd
tcp 0 0 :::80 :::* LISTEN 27242/httpd

There are four listeners listed, two each for all IPv4 (0.0.0.0) and all IPv6 (::) addresses on the local machine. There are two unique PID numbers (1863 and 1993), indicating that there are two, actively running memcached processes. The active ports for each PID, respectively, are 11211 and 11213. I can use this information to guarantee correct connects against my configurations and to provide the correct ports.

ip

The ip command shows network devices, their routes, and a means of manipulating their interfaces. LiquidWeb IP addresses are statically assigned, so you will not need to make any changes to the IPs on your server, but you can use the ip command to read the information on the interfaces:

# ip a

This command is short for ‘ip address show’, and shows you the active interfaces on the server:

1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN
link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
inet6 ::1/128 scope host
valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000
link/ether 52:54:00:00:00:00 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
inet 192.168.0.3/24 brd 192.168.0.255 scope global eth0
inet 192.168.0.1/24 brd 192.168.0.255 scope global eth0:cp1
inet 192.168.0.2/24 brd 192.168.0.255 scope global secondary eth0:cp2
inet6 fe80::5054:ff:face:b00c/64 scope link
valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

In our case, there are two interfaces numbered 1 and 2: lo (the localhost loopback interface), and eth0. eth0 has three IP addresses assigned to it, on eth0, eth0:cp1, and eth0:cp2, which are 192.168.0.1, 2, and 3. We can also see that my MAC address for eth0 is 52:54:00:00:00:00, which can be helpful for troubleshooting connections to other devices like firewalls and switches. This interface also supports IPv6, and our IP is fe80::5054:ff:face:b00c.

lsof

lsof stands for ‘list open files,’ and it does just that; lists the files that are in use by the system. Listing open files is very helpful in determining what script is especially complex, or for finding a file that is in a state of writing.

Let’s use PHP as an example. We want to figure the location or path for the PHP default error logs, but Apache’s configuration is a large group of nested folders. The ps command only tells us if PHP is running, not which file is being written. lsof will show me this handily:

# lsof -c php | grep error
php-fpm 13366 root mem REG 252,3 16656 264846 /lib64/libgpg-error.so.0.5.0
php-fpm 13366 root 2w REG 252,3 185393 3139602 /opt/cpanel/ea-php70/root/usr/var/log/php-fpm/error.log
php-fpm 13366 root 5w REG 252,3 185393 3139602 /opt/cpanel/ea-php70/root/usr/var/log/php-fpm/error.log
php-fpm 13395 root mem REG 252,3 16656 264846 /lib64/libgpg-error.so.0.5.0
php-fpm 13395 root 2w REG 252,3 14842 2623528 /opt/cpanel/ea-php56/root/usr/var/log/php-fpm/error.log
php-fpm 13395 root 7w REG 252,3 14842 2623528 /opt/cpanel/ea-php56/root/usr/var/log/php-fpm/error.log

The ‘-c’ flag will only list processes that match a certain command name, in my case, ‘php’. I pipe this output into grep to search for the files that match the name ‘error’, and I see that there are two open error logs: /opt/cpanel/ea-php56/root/usr/var/log/php-fpm/error.log and /opt/cpanel/ea-php70/root/usr/var/log/php-fpm/error.log. Check each of these files (with tail or cat) to see recently logged errors.

If using the rsync command for the transfer of large folder(s), in this case, /backup, we can search for open rsync processes inside:

# lsof -c rsync | grep /backup
rsync 48479 root cwd DIR 252,3 4096 4578561 /backup
rsync 48479 root 3r REG 252,3 5899771606 4578764 /backup/2018-09-12/accounts/jeff.tar.gz
rsync 48480 root cwd DIR 252,3 4096 4578562 /backup/temp
rsync 48481 root cwd DIR 252,3 4096 4578562 /backup/temp
rsync 48481 root 1u REG 252,3 150994944 4578600 /backup/temp/2018-09-12/accounts/.jeff.tar.gz.yG6Rl2

The process has two regular files open in the /backup directory: /backup/2018-09-12/accounts/jeff.tar.gz and /backup/temp/2018-09-12/accounts/.jeff.tar.gz.yG6Rl2. Even with quiet output on rsync, we can see that it is currently working on copying the jeff.tar.gz file.

df

df is a swift command that displays how much space used on the mounted partitions of a system. It only reads data from the partition tables, so it is slightly less accurate if you are actively moving files around, but it beats enumerating and adding up every file.

# df -h

This ‘-h’ flag gets human readable output in nice round numbers (it can be omitted to print output in KB):

Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/vda3 72G 49G 20G 72% /
tmpfs 419M 0 419M 0% /dev/shm
/dev/vda1 190M 59M 122M 33% /boot
/usr/tmpDSK 3.1G 256M 2.7G 9% /tmp

Some of the information we see is the primary partition mounted on / is 72% used space with 20GB being free. Since we’re not planning on adding any more sites our server right, this is not a problem. But, some of the information we don’t see also is telling. There is no separate /backup partition mounted on my server, so my cPanel backups are filling up the primary partition. If I want to retain more backups, I should consider adding another physical or networked disk to store them.

df can also show inode (file and folder) count of mounted filesystems from the same partition table information:

# df -ih
Filesystem Inodes IUsed IFree IUse% Mounted on
/dev/vda3 4.6M 496K 4.1M 11% /
tmpfs 105K 2 105K 1% /dev/shm
/dev/vda1 50K 44 50K 1% /boot
/usr/tmpDSK 201K 654 201K 1% /tmp

Our main partition has 496,000 inodes used, and just over 4 million inodes free, which is plenty for general use. If we stored a lot of small files, like emails, my inode count could be much higher for the same disk usage in bytes. If you run out of inodes on your partition, it won’t be able to record the location of any more files or folders, even if you have free disk space, the system will function like your disk is full.

du

Like the df command, du will tell you disk usage, but it works by recursively counting folders and files that you specify. This command can take a long time on large folders, or those with a lot of inodes.

# du -hs /home/temp/
2.4M /home/temp/

My flags ‘-hs’ give human-readable output, and only displays the summary of the enumeration, rather than each nested folder. One of the other useful flags is –max-depth, which can define how deep you would like to list folder summaries. This flag is like increasing the depth of the -s flag (-s is basically –max-depth=0,  root — level 1, and one sub-directory — level 2):

# du -hs public_html/
5.5G public_html/

# du -h public_html/ --max-depth=0
5.5G public_html/

# du -h public_html/ --max-depth=1
8.0K public_html/_vti_txt
8.0K public_html/_vti_cnf
257M public_html/storage
64K public_html/cgi-bin
8.0K public_html/_vti_log
5.0G public_html/images
64K public_html/scripts
8.0K public_html/.well-known
8.0K public_html/_private
5.0M public_html/forum
56K public_html/_vti_pvt
24K public_html/_vti_bin
360K public_html/configs
5.5G public_html/

These commands help to find out if any specific folders inside of public_html are significantly larger than others. We add this to a pipe along with grep to get only folders that are 1GB or larger:

# du -h public_html/ --max-depth=1 | grep G
5.0G public_html/images
5.5G public_html/

Clearly, we have some pictures to delete or compress if we need more disk space.

free

The free command shows the instant reading of free memory on your system. Also displayed by top, but when only needing total memory information, the free is a lot faster.

# free -m
total used free shared buffers cached
Mem: 837 750 86 5 66 201
-/+ buffers/cache: 482 354
Swap: 1999 409 1590

Our free command with the megabytes flag displays output in MB. Without it, it would default to -k (kilobytes), but you can also pass -g for gigabytes (though the output is rounded and thus less accurate).

In our output, the total RAM on the system is 837MB, or about 1GB. Of this, 750MB is ‘used,’ but 66MB is in buffers and 201M is cached data, so subtracting those, the total ‘free’ RAM on the server is around 354MB. Because the calculations are made in KB and rounded for output, the numbers won’t always accurately add up (750 plus 86 is not 837).

The final line shows swap usage, which you want to avoid using. My output says that there is 409MB used in the on-disk swap space, but since there is free RAM at the moment, my swap usage was in the past, and the system stopped using swap space.

If there was an amount in the ‘used’ column for swap, and there was 0 free RAM after calculating the buffers and cache, then the system will be very sluggish. We call this ‘being in swap.’ The reading/writing to swap is very slow compared to RAM, and you should avoid going into swap space by tuning your programs to use memory appropriately. If you run out of RAM and swap space, then your server will be out of memory (OOM), and will immediately freeze.

Advanced Commands

Useful Pipelines

Now that we have a few advanced commands under our belt let’s learn more about how we can use pipe to our advantage in making useful command strings or scripts, aka ‘one-liners’ or ‘pipelines.’ These use several formatting commands, such as sed, awk, sort, uniq, or column, which fall outside of the scope of this article for description (you can learn more about them using the man command).

Disk Usage Formatting

This command will use du and awk, an output manipulation tool, to nicely format and sort the output of a du command in the current working directory by size. First, change directory (cd) to your intended folder for analysis, and run:

# du -sk ./* | sort -nr | awk 'BEGIN{ pref[1]="K"; pref[2]="M"; pref[3]="G";} { total = total + $1; x = $1; y = 1; while( x > 1024 ) { x = (x + 1023)/1024; y++; } printf("%g%s\t%s\n",int(x*10)/10,pref[y],$2); } END { y = 1; while( total > 1024 ) { total = (total + 1023)/1024; y++; } printf("Total: %g%s\n",int(total*10)/10,pref[y]); }'

The above command will add dynamic suffixes to the on-disk sizes, so you can see output in GB, MB, and KB, instead of just one of those powers. The top listed folder will be your largest in that directory.

Check Connection Count

This string of commands checks active connections to the server using netstat, pares the output down to HTTP and HTTPS connections using grep, formats and sorts the output using a series of other commands. This example shows how many times each IP address listed has connected to the server.

# netstat -tn 2>/dev/null | grep -E '(:80|:443)' | awk '{print $5}' | cut -f1 -d: | sort | uniq -c | sort -rn
2 46.229.168.149
1 46.229.168.147
1 46.229.168.145
1 46.229.168.144
1 46.229.168.142
1 46.229.168.141
1 46.229.168.138
...

In our case, a subnet that was hitting us with requests to scrape data, caused a lot of load on the server. Add this IP range the firewall, in the deny list, to stop the attack for now.

You can also get a quick summary of just the total number of connections with this command:

# netstat -tan | grep -E ‘(:80|:443)’ | wc -l
8

Format error_log Output

Here is some advanced usage for grep output. The sed command is like awk, where it edits the output stream as it is printed. In this case, we want to look at logged modsec errors, but I want to add some whitespace between the errors so it’s easier to read:

# grep -i modsec /usr/local/apache/logs/error_log | tail -n100 | sed -e “s/$/\\n/”

This command will give me the output of the last 100 logged modsec, ModSec, or ModSecurity line (since the ‘-i’ flag for grep will ignore case sensitivity) and replace the end of each line with a newline.

Memory Usage By Account

Add up all of the percentages of memory usage by user for a running program as defined by ps and give you a sorted output.

# tmpvar=””; for each in `ps aux | grep -v COMMAND | awk '{print $1}' | sort -u`; do tmpvar="$tmpvar\n`ps aux | egrep ^$each | awk 'BEGIN{total=0};{total += $4};END{print total, $1}'`"; done; echo -e $tmpvar | grep -v ^$ | sort -rn | head; unset tmpvar

Usage Count In /var/tmp

When searching for a file count per user, if you encounter a number as the file owner, you can conclude that the user has been removed, and should the file should be deleted.

# find /var/tmp/ ! -user root ! -user mysql ! -user nobody ! -group root ! -group mysql | xargs ls -lh | awk '{print $3, $5, $9}' | sort | awk '{print $1}' | uniq -c | sort -rh

Top Processes By Memory Usage

This command outputs the processes using the highest memory, sorting the 4th column of ps and displaying the top 10 commands with head.

# ps aux | sort -rnk 4 | head

Whether you are brushing up on your Linux Admin interview or just want to get more familiar these commands are sure to be useful to your repertoire.

Install Memcached on Ubuntu 16.04

Memcached works to enhance performance by keeping a copy of commonly used script elements within the server’s memory in a form that is more easily read by the server thus reducing time. A bonus feature of this object cacher is its ability to decrease the number of connections to your database. In this tutorial, we instruct how to install Memcached, but it’s important to note that when using Memcache in an application, the application must be specially coded or configured to store and retrieve data this cached data.

Learn more about caching from our dedicated article or visit our series for database optimization.

Pre-flight

  • We are logged in as root on an Ubuntu 16.04 VPS powered by Liquid Web!
  • Installed and running Apache and PHP 7.

Installation of Memcached

Step 1:
Following best practices, we will do a quick package update by using the following command:
apt-get update
Step 2:
Install the Memcached daemon using
apt-get install memcached -y
Step 3:
Install the Memcache module for PHP fuctionality:
apt-get install php-memcached -y

Verify installation of Memcached

Use the php -m flag to show compiled modules while sorting through specifically looking for memcached.

php -m | grep memcached
memcached

Optional Configurations

At some point, you may find that you need to change the default settings of Memcached. These include adjusting the port number, memory for your cache, and the listening IP address.
vim /etc/memcached.conf

Adjust these configurations by keeping the same flags (-m, -p, -u, -l), adjusting the letter or number after the flag and save the file by typing :wq .
# Start with a cap of 64 megs of memory. It's reasonable, and the daemon default
# Note that the daemon will grow to this size, but does not start out holding this much
# memory
-m 64
 
# Default connection port is 11211
-p 11211
 
# Run the daemon as root. The start-memcached will default to running as root if no
# -u command is present in this config file
-u memcache
 
# Specify which IP address to listen on. The default is to listen on all IP addresses
# This parameter is one of the only security measures that memcached has, so make sure
# it's listening on a firewalled interface.
-l 127.0.0.1

 

Restart your Memcached service to recognize the changes to this file:
systemctl restart memcached

How To Install Memcached on Fedora 23

Memcached is a high-performance distributed, in-memory caching system. It primarily is used to speed up sites that make heavy use of databases. It also can, however, be used to store any kind of object.

Most popular Content Management Systems have a plugin or module designed to take advantage of memcached, and many programming languages such as PHP, Perl, Python, and Ruby also have a memcached library.

Memcached runs in memory and is quite fast, as it does not need to write data to disk.

Pre-Flight Check

  • These instructions are intended specifically for installing Memcached on a single Fedora 23 node. If you’re using a different operating system, check out our guides to installing Memcached on Ubuntu 15.04, CentOS 6 and CentOS 7.
  • We’ll be working as root on a Liquid Web Self Managed Fedora 23 server.

Step #1: Install Memcached

First, we’ll clean up our package files:

dnf clean all

As a matter of best practice we’ll now update our packages:

dnf -y update

To install Memcached and related packages, run the command:

dnf -y install memcached

Step #2: Configure Memcached

Use the following command to view information on the memcached command:

memcached -h

The default configuration file is located at /etc/sysconfig/memcached. Open that file to view the configuration:

vim /etc/sysconfig/memcached

In vim, remember that you can press “a” to enter text insertion mode; pressing the escape key (Esc) on your keyboard returns you to command mode. For a refresher on editing files with vim, see New User Tutorial: Overview of the Vim Text Editor. If vim is not installed on your OS, you can follow our tutorial on installing vim at How to Install VIM (Visual editor IMproved) on Fedora 23.

The contents of the file should appear similar to this:

PORT="11211"
USER="memcached"
MAXCONN="1024"
CACHESIZE="64"
OPTIONS=""

  • PORT is the port on which memcached will run. By default it is 11211.
  • USER is the user as which memcached runs.
  • MAXCONN is the maximum number of connections to memcached.
  • CACHESIZE is the size of the cache, in MB.
  • OPTIONS contains any additional specified options. In this case, there are none.

If you would like to change the port (PORT), the user Memcached runs as (USER), the maximum number of allowed connections to Memcached (MAXCONN), or the cache size in megabytes (CACHESIZE), simply change the options in the configuration file.

After making any changes, save and exit the configuration file with :wq and then restart Memcached:

systemctl restart memcached

Step #3: Configure Memcached to Start on Boot

The following code will ensure that Memcached starts at boot:

systemctl enable memcached

That will produce output similar to:

[root@host ~]# systemctl enable memcached
Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/memcached.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/memcached.service.

To check the status of Memcached:

systemctl status memcached

To stop Memcached:

systemctl stop memcached

To start Memcached:

systemctl start memcached

Step #4: Install the Memcached PHP Extension

If needed, install the Memcached PHP extension with the following command:

dnf -y install php-pecl-memcache

Now restart memcached and Apache for the settings to take effect:

systemctl restart memcached
systemctl restart httpd

To verify that the PHP module is loaded, run the command:

php -m | grep memcache

That should produce output similar to:

[root@host ~]# php -m | grep memcache
memcache

And finally, you can check the php.ini to confirm your Memcached settings:

php -i | grep memcache

That should produce output similar to:

[root@host ~]# php -i | grep memcache
/etc/php.d/40-memcache.ini,
memcache
memcache support => enabled
memcache.allow_failover => 1 => 1
memcache.chunk_size => 32768 => 32768
memcache.compress_threshold => 20000 => 20000
memcache.default_port => 11211 => 11211
memcache.hash_function => crc32 => crc32
memcache.hash_strategy => consistent => consistent
memcache.lock_timeout => 15 => 15
memcache.max_failover_attempts => 20 => 20
memcache.protocol => ascii => ascii
memcache.redundancy => 1 => 1
memcache.session_redundancy => 2 => 2
Registered save handlers => files user memcache

 

How to Install the Memcached PHP Extension on Ubuntu 15.04

Memcached is a distributed, high-performance, in-memory caching system that is primarily used to speed up sites that make heavy use of databases. It can, however, be used to store objects of any kind. Nearly every popular CMS has a plugin or module to take advantage of Memcached, and many programming languages have a Memcached library, including PHP, Perl, Ruby, and Python. Memcached runs in memory and is thus quite speedy since it does not need to write data to disk.

Pre-Flight Check

  • These instructions are intended specifically for installing the Memcached PHP Extension on a single Ubuntu 15.04 node.
  • I’ll be working from a Liquid Web Core Managed Ubuntu 15.04 server, and I’ll be logged in as root.
  • Follow our tutorial on How to Install Memcached on Ubuntu 15.04 prior to this KB!

Continue reading “How to Install the Memcached PHP Extension on Ubuntu 15.04”

How to Install Memcached on Ubuntu 15.04

Memcached is a distributed, high-performance, in-memory caching system that is primarily used to speed up sites that make heavy use of databases. It can however be used to store objects of any kind. Nearly every popular CMS has a plugin or module to take advantage of memcached, and many programming languages have a memcached library, including PHP, Perl, Ruby, and Python. Memcached runs in memory and is thus quite speedy, since it does not need to write data to disk.

Pre-Flight Check

  • These instructions are intended specifically for installing Memcached on a single Ubuntu 15.04 node.
  • I’ll be working from a Liquid Web Core Managed Ubuntu 15.04 server, and I’ll be logged in as root.

Continue reading “How to Install Memcached on Ubuntu 15.04”

What is Caching?

Caching Defined

Caching, as it pertains to hosting a website, is the temporary storage of content. This content could be images, files, bits of PHP scripts that are precompiled, HTML pages, results of database queries, and other web objects.

Why Use Caching?

Caching quickens the responsiveness of your website. You’ll also hear this concept referred to as: reducing latency, eliminating redundant processing steps, improving responsiveness, or reducing load times.

Continue reading “What is Caching?”

How to Install the Memcached PHP Extension on Fedora 21

Memcached is a distributed, high-performance, in-memory caching system that is primarily used to speed up sites that make heavy use of databases. It can, however, be used to store objects of any kind. Nearly every popular CMS has a plugin or module to take advantage of Memcached, and many programming languages have a Memcached library, including PHP, Perl, Ruby, and Python. Memcached runs in memory and is thus quite speedy since it does not need to write data to disk.

Pre-Flight Check
  • These instructions are intended specifically for installing the Memcached PHP Extension on a single Fedora 21 node.
  • I’ll be working from a Liquid Web Self Managed Fedora 21 server, and I’ll be logged in as root.
  • Follow our tutorial on How to Install Memcached on Fedora 21 prior to this KB!
  • Apache and PHP must be installed.

Continue reading “How to Install the Memcached PHP Extension on Fedora 21”

How to Install the Memcached PHP Extension on Fedora 20

Memcached is a distributed, high-performance, in-memory caching system that is primarily used to speed up sites that make heavy use of databases. It can, however, be used to store objects of any kind. Nearly every popular CMS has a plugin or module to take advantage of Memcached, and many programming languages have a Memcached library, including PHP, Perl, Ruby, and Python. Memcached runs in memory and is thus quite speedy since it does not need to write data to disk.

Pre-Flight Check
  • These instructions are intended specifically for installing the Memcached PHP Extension on a single Fedora 20 node.
  • I’ll be working from a Liquid Web Self Managed Fedora 20 server, and I’ll be logged in as root.
  • Follow our tutorial on How to Install Memcached on Fedora 20 prior to this KB!
  • Apache and PHP must be installed.

Continue reading “How to Install the Memcached PHP Extension on Fedora 20”

How to Install the Memcached PHP Extension on CentOS 7

Memcached is a distributed, high-performance, in-memory caching system that is primarily used to speed up sites that make heavy use of databases. It can, however, be used to store objects of any kind. Nearly every popular CMS has a plugin or module to take advantage of Memcached, and many programming languages have a Memcached library, including PHP, Perl, Ruby, and Python. Memcached runs in memory and is thus quite speedy since it does not need to write data to disk.

Pre-Flight Check
  • These instructions are intended specifically for installing the Memcached PHP Extension on a single CentOS 7 node.
  • I’ll be working from a Liquid Web Core Managed CentOS 7 server, and I’ll be logged in as root.
  • Follow our tutorial on How to Install Memcached on CentOS 7 prior to this KB!

Continue reading “How to Install the Memcached PHP Extension on CentOS 7”

How to Install the Memcached PHP Extension on Ubuntu 12.04 LTS

Memcached is a distributed, high-performance, in-memory caching system that is primarily used to speed up sites that make heavy use of databases. It can, however, be used to store objects of any kind. Nearly every popular CMS has a plugin or module to take advantage of Memcached, and many programming languages have a Memcached library, including PHP, Perl, Ruby, and Python. Memcached runs in memory and is thus quite speedy since it does not need to write data to disk.

Pre-Flight Check
  • These instructions are intended specifically for installing the Memcached PHP Extension on a single Ubuntu 12.04 LTS node.
  • I’ll be working from a Liquid Web Core Managed Ubuntu 12.04 LTS server, and I’ll be logged in as root.
  • Follow our tutorial on How to Install Memcached on Ubuntu 12.04 LTS prior to this KB!

Continue reading “How to Install the Memcached PHP Extension on Ubuntu 12.04 LTS”