Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) is the easiest and most common method for managing a Windows server. Included in all versions of Windows server and has a built-in client on all Windows desktops. There are also free applications available for Macintosh and Linux based desktops. Unfortunately, because it is so widely used, RDP is also the target of a large number of brute force attacks on the server. Malicious users will use compromised computers to attempt to connect to your server using RDP. Even if the attack is unsuccessful in guessing your administrator password, just the flood of attempted connections can cause instability and other performance issues on your server. Fortunately, there are some approaches you can use to minimize your exposure to these types of attacks.
Using a VPN
Using a Virtual Private Network (or VPN) is one of the best ways to protect your server from malicious attacks over RDP. Using a VPN connection means that before attempting to reach your server, a connection must first be made to the secure private network. This private network is encrypted and hosted outside your server, so the secure connection itself does not require any of your server’s resources. Once connected to the private network, your workstation is assigned a private IP address that is then used to open the RDP connection to the server. When using a VPN, the server is configured only to allow connections from the VPN address, rejecting any attempts from outside IP addresses (see Scoping Ports in Windows Firewall). The VPN not only protects the server from malicious connections, but it also protects the data transmitted between your local workstation and the server over the VPN connection. For more information, see our article What is a VPN Tunnel?
Using a Hardware Firewall
Like using a VPN, adding a hardware firewall to your server infrastructure further protects your server from malicious attacks. You can add a Liquid Web firewall to your account to allow only RDP connection from a trusted location. Our firewalls operate in much the same way that the software Windows firewall operates, but the functions are handled on the hardware itself, keeping your server resources free to handle legitimate requests. To learn more about adding a hardware firewall to your account, contact our Solutions team. If you already have a Liquid Web firewall in place, our Support team can verify that it is correctly configured to protect RDP connections.
Identify Trusted IP Addresses
An integral part of securing your server is identifying trusted IP addresses that are not limited in scope by the firewall. This allows selected connections filtered by IP to gain access to the server. To accomplish this, we open a web browser from all the computers that are permitted to connect to the server. Then, browse to the Liquid Web IP checker tool and note the reporting IP address presented on that page. With that information, we then proceed to the next section on "Scoping" a port or adding a firewall rule. If you have issues, please see our KB article on troubleshooting RDP connections. Alternatively, if you simply need to find your public IP address, use this link.
Scoping the RDP Firewall Rule
Similar to using a VPN, you can use your Windows firewall to limit access to your RDP port (by default, port 3389). The process of restricting access to a port to a single IP address or group of IP addresses is known as “scoping” the port. When you scope the RDP port, your server will no longer accept connection attempts from any IP address not included in the scope. Scoping frees up server resources because the server doesn’t need to process malicious connection attempts, the rejected unauthorized user is denied at the firewall before ever reaching the RDP system. Here are the steps necessary to scope your RDP port:
- Log in to the server, click on the Windows icon, and type Windows Firewall into the search bar.
- Click on Windows Firewall with Advanced Security.
- Click on Inbound Rules.
- Scroll down to find a rule labeled RDP (or using port 3389).
- Double-click on the rule, then click the Scope tab.
- Make sure to include your current IP address in the list of allowed Remote IPs (you can find your current public IP address by visiting this link.
- Click on the radio button for These IP Addresses: under Remote IP addresses.
- Click OK to save the changes.
Changing the RDP Port
While scoping the RDP port is a great way to protect your server from malicious attempts using the Remote Desktop Protocol, sometimes it is not possible to scope the port. For instance, if you or your developer must use a dynamic IP address connection, it may not be practical to limit access based on IP address. However, there are still steps you can take to improve performance and security for RDP connections.
Most brute force attacks on RDP use the default port of 3389. If there are numerous failed attempts to log in via RDP, you can change the port that RDP uses for connections.
- Before changing the RDP port, make sure the new port you want to use is open in the firewall to prevent being locked out of your server. The best way to do this is duplicate the current firewall rule for RDP, then update the new rule with the new port number you want to use.
- Login to your server and open the Registry editor by entering regedit.exe in the search bar.
- Once in the registry navigate to the following: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Terminal Server\WinStations\RDP-Tcp
- Once there scroll down the list till you find "PortNumber".
- Double-clicking on this will bring up the editor box.
- Change it from HEX to DEC so it's in numbers.
- Set the port number here and hit OK (you can use whatever port number you wish, but you should pick a port that already isn’t in use for another service. A list of commonly used port numbers can be found on MIT’s website.)
- Close the registry editor and reboot the server.
- Be sure to reconnect to the server with the new RDP port number.
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