5 Android/iPhone Apps for IT Admins

Reading Time: 3 minutes

As administrators for our servers, we may find ourselves needing to do certain things while on the go. We may also not have a laptop or PC within reach. But one thing most of us have at all times is a cell phone. Whether we have an Android or an iPhone, most of us do possess a smartphone. One thing great about these smartphones is their constant connection to the Internet. Having that constant connection makes it simple to use various apps that assist with admin tasks through our smartphones. Here is a list of five applications available both on iPhone and Android. If you are interested in checking them out, click on your phone’s type next to the application name. You can also search for these applications by name in your smartphone’s app store. Continue reading “5 Android/iPhone Apps for IT Admins”

How to Install Apache Tomcat 9 on Ubuntu 18.04

Reading Time: 3 minutes

Apache Tomcat is an accessible, open-source application server used to house many of today applications. It’s free, stable, lightweight and is utilized to render Java coding as well a range of other applications.

Today we will be focusing on how to install Apache Tomcat 9 on our Liquid Web Ubuntu server, specifically Ubuntu 18.04 LTS. Continue reading “How to Install Apache Tomcat 9 on Ubuntu 18.04”

Load Balancing Techniques and Optimizations

Reading Time: 8 minutes

The hosting world’s bread & butter solution for providing high availability and redundancy is load balancing. There are many different use cases for a Load Balancer (LB). It is important to know how to effectively manage your LB configuration so that it performs optimally in your environment.  The proceeding article will review some of the common practices that, when adhered to, provide a smooth and seamless high availability website/application through the use of load balancing. Continue reading “Load Balancing Techniques and Optimizations”

How To Set Up Multiple PHP Versions in Webmin

Reading Time: 4 minutes

What is Webmin?

Webmin is a browser-based graphical interface to help you administrate your Linux server.  Much like cPanel or Plesk, Webmin allows you to set up and manage accounts, Apache, DNS zones, users and configurations.  As these configurations can get somewhat complicated Webmin works to simplify this process. The result is fewer issues during server and domain setup.  Which results in a stable server and a pleasant administration experience. Unlike Plesk or cPanel, Webmin is completely free and open to the public. Unfortunately, here at Liquid Web, we do not offer managed support for Webmin, but we are always willing to assist as much as possible when issues arise.   You can download Webmin from their site. Also, you can find some excellent documentation on this interface.

 

Installing Webmin

Before beginning “if you have not already” you will need to install Webmin on your server.  For this article, we will mainly be working with Webmin installed on a Ubuntu server. However, it is very similar to CentOS therefore we have included instructions for both operating systems below.

  • First, you will need to access your server SSH. If you are not sure how to SSH into your server, please visit our link on the subject.  
  • Once you are logged into your server SSH, please run the following commands in order or copy and paste the entire syntax.
Debian/Ubuntu

sudo sh -c 'echo "deb http://download.webmin.com/download/repository sarge contrib" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/webmin.list'wget -qO - http://www.webmin.com/jcameron-key.asc | sudo apt-key add -
sudo apt-get updatesudo apt-get install webmin

CentOS/RedHat/Fedora

(echo "[Webmin] name=Webmin Distribution Neutral
baseurl=http://download.webmin.com/download/yum
enabled=1
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=http://www.webmin.com/jcameron-key.asc" >/etc/yum.repos.d/webmin.repo;
yum -y install webmin)

 

Accessing Webmin

Webmin is a web-based application.  So once Webmin is installed, you can access Webmin by using a browser of your choice.   Be sure to make sure port 10000 is open on your server as Webmin utilizes this port to function.  We have included steps below to ensure the correct port is open for iptables and firewalld.

IPTABLES

iptables-save > /tmp/tabsav
vi /tmp/tabsav
iptables-restore < /tmp/tabsav
You should be able to use the command above to alter you iptables to look something like what we have included below.
# Generated by iptables-save v1.4.7 on Thu Jan 3 00:02:49 2019
*filter
:INPUT ACCEPT [0:0] :FORWARD ACCEPT [0:0] :OUTPUT ACCEPT [3044:1198306] -A INPUT -m state --state RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -p icmp -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -p tcp -m state --state NEW -m tcp --dport 22 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -j REJECT --reject-with icmp-host-prohibited-A FORWARD -j REJECT --reject-with icmp-host-prohibited
COMMIT
# Completed on Thu Jan 3 00:02:49 2019

FirewallD

firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port=10000/tcp --permanent
firewall-cmd --reload

Once you have made sure port 10000 is open, you should be able to access the Webmin interface by entering in your servers IP address followed by the port number “10000”

Example:   https://192.168.1.100:10000             <—— 192.168.1.100 should be replaced with your server IP.

Installing PHP Versions in Webmin

There is a lot of situations where we may need to use multiple PHP versions.  For example, you may have multiple domains or applications on your server that require an older version of PHP while at the same time you may have newer domains that are configured for newer versions of PHP.   For this article, we will be installing PHP7 and PHP5.6 on Debian.

Step 1: First, you will want to SSH into your server and run the following command.
apt-get install php7.0-cli php7.0-fpmYou can check the installation after it has completed by running php –v in your terminal.

Step 2: Now here is where things tend to get tricky.  By default, Debian only offers a single PHP version in the official repository. So, we will have to add an additional repository for Debian. While adding this repository, it is good practice to enable HTTPS for APT and register the APT key. You can accomplish this by executing the commands we have included below.

apt-get install apt-transport-https
curl https://packages.sury.org/php/apt.gpg | apt-key add -
echo 'deb https://packages.sury.org/php/ stretch main' > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/deb.sury.org.list
apt-get update

Once the repository is added, we can go ahead and add our second PHP version to the server.

apt-get install php5.6-cli php5.6-fpmWe can now check both PHP versions on the server by running these commands.

php7.0 -V

Output:


php5.6 -V

Output:

Now that we have confirmed both PHP versions are installed you can access their configuration files in the following directories.

  • /etc/php/5.6/cli/php.ini
  • /etc/php/7.0./cli/php.ini

Step 3: To make things easier, later on, we will want to add the location of the configuration files to Webmin.  This can be done from within the Webmin interface.

  1. Log into Webmin
  2. Navigate to Others >> PHP Configuration
  3. Add the PHP configuration file location
  4. Click Save

You can use this tool to add and edit directives for different PHP versions. For example, you’ll be able to edit PHP’s memory limit, timeout length, extensions and more.  This simply helps consolidate configurations within one interface. From here we can just use a .htaccess file to specify what version of PHP a site should use.

Step 4: If you do not have this file already within your document root you can add this file by navigating to /var/www/exampledomain/  and running the following command to indicate which PHP version you are going to use.

echo "AddHandler application/x-httpd-php56 .php" >  .htaccess  | chown exampleuser. .htaccess

echo "AddHandler application/x-httpd-php70.php" >  .htaccess  | chown exampleuser. .htaccess

Step 5: Once you have completed this, you can test to see if your site is running on the desired PHP version.  You can accomplish this by creating a PHP information page. by making a file in your document root, usually in the path of /var/www/html/

You will want to insert the code below and save the file.

<? phpinfo(); ?>   After you have created this file, you can view the page by visiting your domain followed by the name of the file you created.  For example, www.example.com/phpinfo.php.

Congratulations you can now use Webmin to accomplish your daily admin tasks!  Take a look at our Cloud VPS servers for 24/7 support and lightening speed servers!

How To Set Up FTP isolation in CentOS or Ubuntu

Reading Time: 4 minutes

Configuring Multi-User FTP with User Isolation

This article is intended to give an overview of a chroot environment and configuring your FTP service for user isolation. This is done with a few lines within the main configuration file of the FTP service.

This article is also intended as a guide for our Core-Managed servers running CentOS or Ubuntu without a control panel. Our Fully Managed servers that utilize the cPanel software already have the FTP user isolation configured by default and also provide utilities for creating FTP users.

What is Chroot?

Chroot or change-root is the implementation of setting a new root directory for the environment that a user has access to. By doing this, from the user’s perspective, there will appear to be no higher directory that the user could escape to. They would be limited to the directory they start in and only see the contents inside of that directory.

If a user were to try and list the contents of the root (/) of the system, it would return the contents of their chroot environment and not the actual root of the server. Read more about this at the following link.

 

Installing ProFTPd

As there are many FTP options available, ProFTPd, Pure-FTPd, vsftpd, to name a few, this article will only focus on the use of ProFTPd for simplicity and brevity. This is also not intended to be a guide for installing an FTP service as it’s covered in our Knowledge Base articles below.

https://www.liquidweb.com/kb/how-to-install-proftpd-on-centos-7/

https://www.liquidweb.com/kb/how-to-install-and-configure-proftpd-on-ubuntu-14-04-lts/

 

User Isolation with ProFTPd

User Setup

By default, ProFTPd will read the system /etc/passwd file. These users in this file are the normal system users and are not required to be created outside of normal user creation. There are many ways to create additional FTP users, but this is one way to get started.

Here are some typical entries from the system passwd file. From left to right, you can see the username the user and group IDs, the home directory and the default shell configured for that user.

user1:x:506:521::/home/user1:/bin/bashuser2:x:505:520::/home/user2:/bin/bash

To create these users, you would use the useradd command from the command line or whatever other methods you would typically use to create users on the server.

Create the user

useradd -m -d /home/homedir newuser

Set the user password

passwd newuser

If you are setting up multiple users that all need to have access to the same directory, you will need to make sure that the users are all in the same group. Being in the same group means that each user can have group level access to the directory and allow everyone in the group to access the files that each user uploads. This level of user management is beyond the scope of this article, but be aware that things of this nature are possible.

ProFTPd User Configuration

To jail a user to their home directory within ProFTPd, you have to set the DefaultRoot value to ~.

vim /etc/proftpd.conf

DefaultRoot ~

With this set, it tells the FTP service to only allow the user to access their home directory. The ~ is a shortcut that tells the system to read whatever the user’s home directory is from the /etc/passwd file and use that value.

Using this functionality in ProFTPd, you can also define multiple DefaultRoot directives and have those restrictions match based on some criteria. You can jail some users, and not others, or jail a set of users all to the same directory if desired. This is done by matching the group that a user belongs to.

When a new user is created, as shown above, their default group will be the same as their username. You can, however, add or modify the group(s) assigned to the user after they are created if necessary.

Jail Everyone Not in the “Special-Group”

DefaultRoot ~ !special-group

Jail Group1 and Group2 to the Same Directory

DefaultRoot /path/to/uploads group1,group2

After making these changes to the proftpd.conf file you’ll need to restart the FTP service.

CentOS 6.x (init)

/etc/init.d/proftpd restart

CentOS 7.x (systemd)

systemctl restart proftpd

 

User Isolation with SFTP (SSH)

You can also isolate SFTP users or restrict a subset of SSH users to only have SFTP access. Again, this pertains to regular system users created using the useradd command.

While you can secure FTP communications using SSL, this is an extra level of setup and configuration. SFTP, by contrast, is used for file transfers over an SSH connection. SSH is an encrypted connection to the server and is secure by default. If you are concerned about security and are unsure about adding SSL to your FTP configuration, this may be another option to look into.

 

SFTP User Setup

Create the user and their home directory just like with the FTP user, but here we make sure to set the shell to not allow normal SSH login. We are presuming that you are looking for SFTP-only users and not just regular shell users, so we add the restriction on the shell to prevent non-SFTP logins.

useradd -m -d /home/homedir/ -s /sbin/nologin username

passwd username

We need to make sure that permissions and ownership are set for the home directory to be owned by root, and the upload directory is owned by the user.

chmod 755 /home/homedir/

chown root. /home/homedir/

mkdir -p /home/homedir/upload-dir/

chown username. /home/homedir/upload-dir/

 

SFTP Configuration

Hereby setting the ChrootDirectory to the %h variable, we are confining the user to their home directory as set up when the user was created. Using the ForceCommand directive also limits the commands the user is allowed to execute to only SFTP commands used for file transfers, again eliminating the possibility that the users will be able to break out of the jail and into a normal shell environment.

/etc/ssh/sshd_config
Subsystem sftp internal-sftp
Match User user1,user2,user3
ChrootDirectory %h
ForceCommand internal-sftp

Jail Multiple FTP Users to a Location

Alternatively, if you wanted to have multiple users all jailed to the same location, you can set them all to be in the same group, have the same home directory, and then use a Match Group directive within the SSH configuration.

vim /etc/ssh/sshd_config

Subsystem sftp internal-sftp
Match Group groupname
ChrootDirectory %h
ForceCommand internal-sftp

After making these changes to the sshd_config file, restart the SSH service. One of the following commands should work for you.

CentOS 6.x (init)

/etc/init.d/sshd restart

CentOS 7.x (systemd)

systemctl restart sshd

Further Reading can be found at:

 

How to Secure a Site in IIS

Reading Time: 6 minutes

When investigating site infections or defacing on a Windows Servers, the most common root cause is poor file security or poor configuration choices when it comes to how IIS should access file content.  The easiest way to prevent this is to start with a secure site.

Setting up a website in IIS is exceedingly easy, but several of the default settings are not optimum when it comes to security or ease of management.  Further, some practices that used to be considered necessary or standards are no longer or were never necessary, to begin with. As such, we recommend that you follow these steps to set up a website to ensure that it is set up correctly and securely. And while some of these setting or permission changes may seem nitpicky, they go a long way on systems that host multiple domains or multiple tenants as they prevent any cross-site file access.

 

Add the Site to IIS

To add a website in IIS (Internet Information Services),  open up the IIS manager, right-click on Sites, and select Add Website.When adding a site to IIS, we typically recommend using the domain name as the “Site name” for easy identification.  Next, under “Physical path”, you will need to supply the path to where your website content is located or use the “” to navigate to and select the folder.  Configuration options under “Connect as…” and “Test Settings…” do not need to be modified.

When it comes to configuring site bindings, popular belief suggests that you should select a specific IP from the “IP address” drop dropdown; however, that is based on out of date practices typically in relation to how SSLs used to require dedicated IPs.  This is no longer necessary and can actually cause issues when getting into any eplicated or highly available configuration, so it is best to leave IP addresses set to All Unassigned and type the domain name you plan to host in the “Host name” field. Do note that you can only supply one value here; additional host names can be added after creating the site by right-clicking on the site and going to Bindings.  Further, depending on your needs, you may opt to select “https” instead of “http”. To host a site with an SSL, please visit our article on the subject after setting up the site to add an SSL and configure it.

 

Set the Anonymous User

Technically that is all you need to do to set up a site in IIS; however, the site may or may not work, and the security settings on the site are not optimum. The next step in securing your site is to configure the IIS user that will access your files. To do this, you will need to change the associated Anonymous user and make a few security changes on the website’s content folder.

In IIS, select your new site on the left, in the main window double click on Authentication, select Anonymous Authentication, and then click “Edit…” on the right action bar.

 

What is IUSR in IIS?

By default, a new site in IIS utilizes the IUSR account for accessing files.  This account is a built-in shared account typically used by IIS to access file content. This means that it will use the application pool’s identity (user) to access file content.

It may be okay to leave this configured if you only plan on hosting one domain; however, when it comes to hosting multiple domains, this is not secure as it would then be possible for any site using the same account to access files from another site.  As such, and as a standard practice, we recommend switching away from using the IUSR account for sites, and instead selecting “Application pool identity” and clicking OK. Alternately, you could manually create a user on the system for each site; however, then you need to manage credentials for an additional user, need to configure permissions for two users (the anonymous user and the application pool user) and possible complications with password complexity and rotation requirements your server or organization may have.

There is nothing further you need to configure in IIS in terms of security; however, for reference, let’s take a look at the application pool settings really quick.  To check the settings on the application pool, in IIS, select Application Pools on the left menu, select the application pool for the site you created (typically the same name as the name of the site), and then click “Advanced Settings…” on the right action bar.

In here, the related setting is the identity, which by default is “ApplicationPoolIdentity”.  This means to access file content, IIS and the associated application pool will use a hidden, dynamic user based off the name of the application pool to access files.  This user has no associated password, can only be used by IIS, and only has access to files specifically granted to it. As such, it removes the requirement of managing system users and credentials.

 

Set Folder Permissions in IIS

Now, as mentioned, the “ApplicationPoolIdentity” user has very few permissions, so the next and last step is to ensure that the website files have proper security settings set on them. Browse through your file system and find the folder where you plan on hosting your site’s files. Right-click on the folder and go to properties. In the properties interface, select the Security tab.

By default, there are a number of security permissions set up on the folder that are unnecessary and potentially insecure (there may be more than shown here).  To best secure a site, we recommend removing all but the “SYSTEM” and “Administrators” groups and adding the “ApplicationPoolIdentity” user (and possibly any other user you may require, such as an FTP user); however, to do this, you will need to disable inheritance.  To do this, click on “Advanced”, then click on “Disable inheritance”.

 

Here you will get a popup asking if you want to copy the current settings or start with no settings.  Either option can work; however, it is easier to copy the current settings and then remove the unnecessary permissions.  So select “ConvertConcert inherited permissions into explicit permission on this object” and then click OK.

At this point, to remove the unnecessary permissions, click Edit and remove everything other than the “SYSTEM” and “Administrators” groups.  Next, you need to add the “ApplicationPoolIdentity” user to this folder. To do this, click “Add…”. Now, depending on your server configuration, you may get a pop-up asking for you to authenticate to an active directory domain.  Simply click the cancel button a few times until you get the Select Users of Groups screen shown below.

On this screen, you will want to make sure that the “Location” selected is your computer.  If it is not, click “Locations…” and select your computer (should be at the top; you may also need to click cancel on some authentication windows here as well).

The “ApplicationPoolIdentity” user is a hidden user, so it is not possible to search for this user.  As such, you will have to type the username to add it. The username you will need to type is “IIS AppPool\<applicationpoolname>“.  Please see the following example and fill yours out accordingly:

Once you type the user name, click OK.  Now that you’ve added the user, which is by default only granted read permissions, you will want to verify your security settings look similar to the following image, and then click OK.

And with that, you’re done and have a secure site ready to be viewed by the masses without needing to fear that hackers will deface it.

 

Securing within Powershell

As a bonus, if you’re looking to get your fingers wet with some Powershell, the steps covered in this article can also be accomplished on a Windows Server 2012 or newer server through Powershell.  Simply fill out the first two variables with your domain name and the path to your content, and then run the rest of the PowerShell commands to set up the site in IIS and configure folder permissions.

[String]$Domain = ‘<domain_Name>’

[String]$Root = ‘<path_to_your_content>’

Import-Module WebAdministration

#Create App pool & Website
New-WebAppPool -Name $Domain
New-Website -Name $Domain -HostHeader $Domain -PhysicalPath $Root -ApplicationPool $Domain
Set-WebConfigurationProperty -Filter system.webServer/security/authentication/anonymousAuthentication -Location $Domain -PSPath MACHINE/WEBROOT/APPHOST -Name userName -Value ''

#Optionally add www. Binding
New-WebBinding -Name $Domain -HostHeader www.$Domain -ErrorAction

#Remove inheritance (copy)
$ACL = Get-ACL $Root
$ACL.SetAccessRuleProtection($True,$True) | Out-Null
$ACL.Access | ?{ !(($_.IdentityReference -eq 'NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM') -or ($_.IdentityReference -eq 'BUILTIN\Administrators')) } | %{ $ACL.RemoveAccessRule( $_ ) } | Out-Null
$ACL | Set-ACL

#Add IIS user permissions
$ACL = Get-ACL $Root
$acl.SetAccessRuleProtection($False, $True)
$Rule = New-Object System.Security.AccessControl.FileSystemAccessRule("IIS AppPool\$Domain", "ReadAndExecute", "ContainerInherit, ObjectInherit", "None", "Allow")
$acl.AddAccessRule($Rule)
$acl | Set-Acl

Additional Notes: In some cases, sites may need additional write or modify permissions on specific files or folders for file uploads, cache files, or other content.  It is important that you do not apply modified permissions to the entire site. Instead, modify specific directories or files as needed. To apply these settings, go to the file or folder that needs modification, right-click on it, and select Properties.  Switch to the Security tab and click Edit. In there, select the user that has the name of the website (liquidweb.com in my example above), select modify under the Allow column, and then click OK. This will give the ApplicationPoolIdentity and IIS the ability to write to or modify the file(s) or folder(s).

Still need additional protection for your Liquid Web server?  Our Server Protection packages provides a suite of security tools especially for Windows servers.  You’ll get routine vulnerability scans, hardened server configurations, anti-Virus and even malware cleanup, should your site get hacked. Don’t wait another vunerable minute, check out how we can protect you.

 

How To Add a User and Grant Root Privileges on Ubuntu 18.04

Reading Time: 2 minutes

Adding a user and granting that user root privileges is one of the many tasks of a system admin.   Once a user has been added and granted root privileges they’ll be able to login to your Ubuntu 18.04 and perform vital functions for the upkeep of the system. Afterward, they’ll be able to use sudo before commands to perform elevated tasks.  In this quick tutorial, we’ll show you how to add a new user and grant root permissions. Continue reading “How To Add a User and Grant Root Privileges on Ubuntu 18.04”

Install and Configure Mod_Security on Ubuntu 16.04 Server

Reading Time: 5 minutes

Mod_security, also commonly called Modsec for short, is a powerful WAF (Web Application Firewall) that integrates directly into Apache’s module system. This direct integration allows the security module to intercept traffic at the earliest stages of a request. Early detection is crucial for blocking malicious requests before they are passed along to web applications hosted by Apache web sites. This provides and extra layer of protection against common threats a server faces. This article will explore the installation of mod_security along with the CRS (Core Rule Set) in a Ubuntu 16.04 LTS Server running Apache 2.4. Continue reading “Install and Configure Mod_Security on Ubuntu 16.04 Server”

How To Set Up FTP for Windows

Reading Time: 5 minutes

What is FTP?

You or your developer may want to have access via FTP (File Transfer Protocol) to the folders for the project or domain that is being worked on. FTP is a quick and easy way for someone to connect to their project, without having to have full access via RDP to the server. An FTP user also only has access to the folders that are designated to them, keeping them in their own environment so as not to accidentally change other user’s files and file structure on their project/domain. Here we will cover how to utilize FTP on a Core/Self-Managed Dedicated or VPS Server, as well as a Plesk Server.  Let’s jump right in!

 

Enabling FTP Services

The first thing that you need to check before creating an FTP user is to enable FTP on your server. To do that on a Core/Self-Managed server, we need to RDP to the server and open Server Manager.

Once the server manager is open, in the top right corner, there are a few options: Manage, Tools, View, and Help. We want to click on Manage, which will show a drop-down menu. At the top of the menu, click on the option Add Roles and Features.

Once you have the Add Roles and Features Wizard up, click Next until you are at the Server Selection.

Make sure your server is highlighted, by default, it should be. If so, you can click Next which brings you to Server Roles.

Server Roles are where you will find the features your server can have enabled separately, depending on your needs. We aren’t looking for anything but FTP at this time, so we won’t cover all of the features and services we find here. FTP services are going to be found under the role Web Server. Click on the carrot next to Web Server. There are 3 different options with checkboxes; Web Server, FTP Server, and Management Tools. Dropping down the FTP Feature will show the available FTP features.

If all of these are already checked, you can skip ahead to the Adding and Assigning FTP Users section of this help article. However, if these are not checked, go ahead and check FTP Server and FTP Service. If your users plan on using ASP.NET services or IIS Manager, you will want to make sure you check FTP Extensibility.

Once you have the FTP features selected, click on Next a couple of times until you get to the Confirmation page. At the top, you will see an option to “restart the destination server automatically if needed. For installing FTP Services, a restart is not needed. We can leave this box unchecked and click on Install. This install process shouldn’t take too long.

 

Adding an FTP User Account

Before we add an FTP site, we need to set up a user with some credentials. We do this by accessing Computer Management.On Windows 2012 and up, we can do this by right-clicking the Start Menu button, and selecting Computer Management. Here, under System Tools, if we click the drop down carrot, we will see the Local Users and Groups section. Double-click on Users and a list of all the Local Users will formulate. On the far right of the Computer Management, once we have navigated to Users, we see a More Actions and will need to click on that to add a New User.

Clicking on New User will pop up a simple interface that asks for the user name, the user’s full name, a description for that user that serves as a description for you, the administrator, to recognize the purpose of this user. Fill out this information accordingly and type in a password for this user. Under Confirm Password, we see that by default “User must change password at next logon” is selected. Because this is strictly for FTP, we will uncheck that and check “User cannot change password” and “Password never expires”. Considering the FTP user will only have access to the destination you allow, it is not necessary to change the password.

 

Adding an FTP Site

Now that FTP Services are installed and a user is created, we need to head on over to the IIS Manager. This can be found in the Start Menu, or by clicking on Tools in Server Manager as we did before, but clicking on Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager.

Here is the IIS Manager, we need to create the FTP site that you will want this specific user to have access to. We do this by clicking on the drop-down carrot next to the server name, and then right-clicking on the folder that says “Sites“.

A menu will pop up, with the option to Add FTP Site. Enter the name you wish to give this FTP site. Select a Physical path, where you want the user for this FTP site to have access. Do this by either typing in the direct path, or selecting the 3 dots next to the entry bar and physically selecting the folder you wish to assign this FTP site.

Clicking next will bring you to Bindings and SSL settings. If you have any specific IP address that is assigned to a domain that is being used for this FTP Service, you need to make sure that the IP address is selected by dropping down the bar.

If all sites are taking advantage of Windows SNI (Server Name Identification) than you can leave this set to All Unassigned, if you wish to use a different port than the default FTP port, go ahead and type that in under Port. But if this is just a basic FTP instance for everyday purposes, go ahead and leave that port at the default 21. Next, you want to make sure that “Start FTP Site automatically” is selected. Unless of course, you want to manually allow the user to connect to their FTP site only when you designate by starting the page in IIS. Select No SSL and click Next for this FTP Site. In this tutorial, we will not be covering setting up an SSL for this specific FTP Site. If you do already have an SSL that you have added to the server for this purpose, you need to make sure that Allow or Require under SSL is checked, and select your SSL on the drop down bar labeled SSL Certificate.

Now we have been brought to the Authentication and Authorization section. Here at the top are two options for Authentication. Make sure that both boxes are checked. Finally, we have the Authorization section where we would select the groups or users we want to allow to be able to log into this FTP Site.

 

Setting Up the Windows Firewall

Now that we have the FTP site all set up and ready to go, we do need to set up the firewall rules. Open up your firewall by clicking on Start, scrolling to Windows Administrative Tools, and clicking on Windows Firewall with Advanced Security.

We need to set some rules on the Inbound Rules section, so click on that first. It’s in the top right corner. After clicking on Inbound Rules in the top right corner under Actions, you will see a section called Inbound Rules. Under that category should be New Rule.

You may have to click on the arrow next to Inbound Rules to see this. Click on the New Rule

And you will be selecting the Rule Type. For FTP we will be using Port, so click on that and Next. Now you will see Protocol and Ports. For Protocol, use the setting TCP. For Specific local ports type 21, 5001-5051 and click on Next.

Now we have the Action section. By default, “Allow the connection” is selected. Keep this the way it is and press Next. Now you will be prompted for when this rule will apply.

We want it always to apply so keep each network connection type box checked. There are three: Domain, Private, and Public. Click Next, and you will be naming the firewall rule. We suggest just naming it FTP Connection or something of the sort.

You should be all set. Go ahead and log into another computer, use your favorite FTP client (such as Filezilla), enter the IP address as a host, and your newly created username and password, port number, and click connect. You are now connected FTP to your designated pathway on your server.

 

FTP on a Plesk Server

This process is a lot faster and much simpler. Here are a couple links in regards to setting it up on a Plesk Windows Server.

https://help.liquidweb.com/s/article/Creating-FTP-Users

https://help.liquidweb.com/s/article/Uploading-Files-Using-FTP-in-Plesk

You did it! You have successfully set up an FTP site so that you or the developers can now edit, copy, and remove files from their designated folders smoothly.

Committing and Pushing to Github from Ubuntu 18.04

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In our previous tutorial, we showed you how to create and sync a Github repository to your Ubuntu 18.04 server.  Using the last tutorial as a springboard, we’ll continue on and show you how to commit and push a script from your Ubuntu server to your Github account. Continue reading “Committing and Pushing to Github from Ubuntu 18.04”